How to Find Prime Number Efficiently

Translator: shazi4399​

Author: labuladong​

The definition of a prime number seems simple,which is said to be prime number if it can be divided by 1 and itself.

However,don't think that the definition of prime numbers is simple. I am afraid that few people can write a prime-related algorithm that works really efficiently. Let's say you write a function like this:

// Returns several primes in the interval [2, n)
int countPrimes(int n)
​
// E.g. countPrimes (10) returns 4
// Because 2,3,5,7 is prime numbers

How would you program this function? I think you maybe write like this:

int countPrimes(int n) {
int count = 0;
for (int i = 2; i < n; i++)
if (isPrim(i)) count++;
return count;
}
​
// Determines whether integer n is prime
boolean isPrime(int n) {
for (int i = 2; i < n; i++)
if (n % i == 0)
// There are other divisibility factors
return false;
return true;
}

The time complexity is O (n ^ 2), which is a big problem.First of all, the idea of using the isPrime function to assist is not efficient; and even if you want to use the isPrime function, there is computational redundancy in writing the algorithm.

Let's briefly talk about how to write an algorithm if you want to determine whether a number is prime or not. Just slightly modify the for loop condition in the isPrim code above:

boolean isPrime(int n) {
for (int i = 2; i * i <= n; i++)
...
}

In other words, i does not need to traverse ton, but only to sqrt (n). Why? let's take an example, suppose n = 12.

12 = 2 × 6
12 = 3 × 4
12 = sqrt(12) × sqrt(12)
12 = 4 × 3
12 = 6 × 2

As you can see, the last two products are the reverse of the previous two, and the critical point of inversion is at sqrt (n).

In other words, if no divisible factor is found within the interval [[2, sqrt (n)], you can directly conclude that n is a prime number, because in the interval [[sqrt (n), n] Nor will you find a divisible factor.

Now, the time complexity of the isPrime function is reduced to O (sqrt (N)), ** but we don't actually need this function to implement thecountPrimes function. The above just hope that readers understand the meaning of sqrt (n), because it will be used again later.

Efficient implementation countPrimes

The core idea of efficiently solving this problem is to reverse the conventional idea above:

First from 2, we know that 2 is a prime number, then 2 × 2 = 4, 3 × 2 = 6, 4 × 2 = 8 ... all are not prime numbers.

Then we found that 3 is also a prime number, so 3 × 2 = 6, 3 × 3 = 9, 3 × 4 = 12 ... are also impossible to be prime numbers.

Seeing this, do you understand the logic of this exclusion method a bit? First look at our first version of the code:

int countPrimes(int n) {
boolean[] isPrim = new boolean[n];
// Initialize the arrays to true
Arrays.fill(isPrim, true);
​
for (int i = 2; i < n; i++)
if (isPrim[i])
// Multiples of i cannot be prime
for (int j = 2 * i; j < n; j += i)
isPrim[j] = false;
​
int count = 0;
for (int i = 2; i < n; i++)
if (isPrim[i]) count++;
​
return count;
}

If you can understand the above code, then you have mastered the overall idea, but there are two subtle areas that can be optimized.

First of all, recall the isPrime function that just judges whether a number is prime. Due to the symmetry of the factors, the for loop only needs to traverse[2, sqrt (n)]. Here is similar, our outer for loop only needs to traverse to sqrt (n):

for (int i = 2; i * i < n; i++)
if (isPrim[i])
...

In addition, it is difficult to notice that the inner for loop can also be optimized. Our previous approach was:

for (int j = 2 * i; j < n; j += i)
isPrim[j] = false;

This can mark all integer multiples of i asfalse, but there is still computational redundancy.

For example, when n = 25 andi = 4, the algorithm will mark numbers such as 4 × 2 = 8, 4 × 3 = 12, and so on, but these two numbers have been marked by 2 × 4 and 3 × 4 that is i = 2 andi = 3.

We can optimize it slightly so that j traverses from the square ofi instead of starting from 2 * i:

for (int j = i * i; j < n; j += i)
isPrim[j] = false;

In this way, the algorithm for counting prime numbers is efficiently implemented. In fact, this algorithm has a name, which called Sieve of Eratosthenes. Take a look at the complete final code:

int countPrimes(int n) {
boolean[] isPrim = new boolean[n];
Arrays.fill(isPrim, true);
for (int i = 2; i * i < n; i++)
if (isPrim[i])
for (int j = i * i; j < n; j += i)
isPrim[j] = false;
​
int count = 0;
for (int i = 2; i < n; i++)
if (isPrim[i]) count++;
​
return count;
}

The time complexity of this algorithm is difficult to calculate.It is obvious that the time is related to these two nested for loops. The operands should be:

n/2 + n/3 + n/5 + n/7 + ... = n × (1/2 + 1/3 + 1/5 + 1/7...)

In parentheses, ther is the inverse of the prime number .The final result is O(N * loglogN),and readers interested in this can refer to the time complexity of the algorithm

That is all about how to find prime Numbers.The seemingly simple problem does has a lot of details to polish